**Glossary of Terms (page 1)**
**adaptive-chosen-ciphertext** - A version of the chosen-ciphertext attack where the cryptanalyst can choose ciphertexts dynamically.
A Cryptanalyst can mount an attack of this type in a scenario in which he or she has free use of a piece of decryption hardware, but is unable to extract the decryption key from it.
**adaptive-chosen-plaintext** - A special case of the chosen-plaintext
attack in which the cryptanalyst is able to choose plaintexts dynamically, and alter his or her choices base on the results
of previous encryptions.
**adversary** - Commonly used to refer to the opponent, the enemy, or
any other mischievous person that desires to compromise one's security.
**AES** - The Advanced Encryption Standard that will replace DES
(The Data Encryption Standard) around the turn of the century.
**algebraic attack** - A method of cryptanalytic attack used against
block ciphers that exhibit a significant amount of mathematical structure.
**algorithm** - A series of steps used to complete a task.
**Alice** - The name traditionally used for the first user of
cryptography in a system: Bob's friend.
**ANSI** - American National Standards Institute.
**API** - Application Programming Interface.
**attack** - Either a successful or unsuccessful attempt at breaking
part or all of a cryptosystem. See algebraic attack, birthday attack, brute force attack, chosen ciphertext attack, chosen
plaintext attack, differential cryptanalysis, known plaintext attack, linear cryptanalysis, middleperson attack.
**authentication** - The action of verifying information such as
identity, ownership or authorization.
**biometrics** - The science of using biological properties to
identify individuals; for example, fingerprints, retina scan and voice recognition.
**birthday attack** - A brute-force attack used to find collisions.
It gets its name from the surprising result that the probability of two or more people in a group of 23 sharing the same
birthday is greater than 1/2.
**bit** - A binary digit, either 1 or 0.
**blind signature scheme** - Allows one party to have a second party
sign a message without revealing any (or very little) information about the message to the second party.
**block** - A sequence of bits of fixed length; longer sequences of
bits can be broken down into blocks.
**block cipher** - A symmetric cipher which encrypts a message by
breaking it down into blocks and encrypting each block.
**block cipher based MAC** - MAC that is preformed by using a block
cipher as a keyed compression function.
**Bob** - The name traditionally used for the second user of cryptography
in a system; Alice's friend.
**boolean expression** - A mathematical expression in which all variables
involved are either 0 or 1; it evaluates to either 0 or 1.
**brute force attack** - This attack requires trying all (or a large
fraction of all) possible values till the right value is found; also called an exhaustive search.
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